Nutrition - Vitamins and Minerals Required for the Human Body to Survive and Stay Healthy

Nutritions-Vitamins and Minerals Required

for the Human Body

Image by silviarita from Pixabay

Vitamins and Minerals are the two main types of nutrients that are necessary for your body to survive and stay healthy.

Vitamins help your body to grow and function.

Every Vitamin has a different function. - which help us to resist many infections, keeps our nerves healthy, helps the blood to freeze properly, and helps us to get energy from our food.
By eating a balanced diet, you get most of these vitamins from the food itself.

Minerals also help our body to perform its function. We require very small amounts of minerals like iodine and fluoride. But we need a large amount of other minerals like calcium, magnesium, and potassium.

With vitamins, if we eat different foods, we can probably get most of the minerals.

Here’s a tip

Different foods have different nutrients. If we eat various foods throughout the week, it will help us to get many different types of nutrients. That is, if we eat meat twice a week, instead of meat once we can eat fish.

It is better to get the necessary nutrients from food instead of pills. Because our nutritious food also contains other things like fiber which are beneficial for our health.

You can get all the nutrients you need from your food. But if you have any doubt, talk to your doctor or registered dietitian.

If you need vitamin supplementation, then you should look for vitamin supplements that contain the same vitamins or minerals that your body needs. 

Take the same dose as prescribed by the doctor, read the label for the dose. Avoid big doses. Excess of some vitamins and minerals can harm your body.

Vitamin A; (Retinoids and Carotene)

Vitamin A is essential for eye vision. Keeps tissues and skin healthy. Vitamin A plays an important role in bone development and in the immune system. Carotenoids rich in alpha-carotene and lycopene reduces the risk of lung cancer.

Carotenoids act as antioxidants. Foods rich in carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin can protect against cataract

Retinoids you can get from beef liver, eggs, shrimp, fish, fortified milk, butter, cheddar cheese, Swiss cheese. And beta carotene you can get from sweet potato, carrot, pumpkin, squash, spinach, mango, turnip greens.

Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

Vitamin B1 helps in converting food into energy, and it's needed for healthy skin, hair, muscles, and brain.

You can get it from pork chops, eggs, beef, liver, nuts, oats, peas, pasta, brown rice, ham, soymilk, watermelons, acorn squash

Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)     
Vitamin B2 also helps in converting food into energy, and it's needed for healthy skin, hair, blood, and brain.

You can get it from low-fat milk, yogurt, cheese, eggs, meats, cereals, whole and enriched grains and green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin B3 (Niacin, nicotinic acid)  
Vitamin B3 helps convert food into energy and it is essential for healthy skin, blood cells, nervous system, and brain.

This vitamin you will get from meat, poultry, fish, turkey, pork, beef, peanut butter, 
mushrooms, potatoes, peanuts, green peas, fortified and whole grains, brown rice.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) 
Vitamin B5 helps to convert food into energy and helps in making lipids (fats), hemoglobin, neurotransmitters and steroid hormones,

Vitamin B5 you will get from chicken, egg yolk, beans, peas, lentils, nuts, broccoli, mushrooms, dairy products. tomato products and whole grains

Vitamin B6, (pyridoxal, pyridoxine, pyridoxamine)   
It helps in lowering homocysteine levels and may reduce the risk of heart disease.

It Helps convert tryptophan to niacin and serotonin, a neurotransmitter that plays key roles in sleep, appetite, and moods. Reduce symptoms of depression.

Helps Hemoglobin Production make red blood cells Influence cognitive abilities and immune function.

You will get vitamin B6 from meat, pork, fish, poultry, legumes, wholegrain cereals, tofu, and other soy products, potatoes.

Vitamin B7 (Biotin)  
Vitamin B7 is water-soluble, so the body cannot store this vitamin. it helps in converting food into energy and synthesize glucose. It helps to make and break down some fatty acids.

Needed for healthy bones and hair, nails.

You will get it from whole grains, organ meats, egg yolks, soybeans, nuts and seeds, sweet potatoes broccoli, fish, milk, cheese, and yogurt.

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid, Folate, Folacin)

Vitamin B9 is important for new cell production. It helps in the creation and maintenance of new cells of your body.

Helps prevent birth defects in the baby's brain and spinal cord at the beginning of pregnancy;

Vitamin B9 should be taken regularly by all women of childbearing age, as women are not known to be pregnant in the first weeks.

Reduces low levels of homocysteine and may reduce the risk of heart disease.
It can prevent stomach cancer.

One can get Vitamin B9 from okra, spinach, turnip greens, broccoli, legumes such as black-eyed peas and chickpeas, orange juice, and tomato juice

Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)  

It helps in reducing homocysteine levels and may reduce the risk of heart disease.

It helps create new cells and break down some fatty acids and amino acids.

It protects nerve cells and stimulates their normal growth. It helps in making red blood cells and DNA.

meat, beef liver, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, fortified cereals, fortified soymilk are the sources of Vitamin B12.

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) 

Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, it may lower the risk for some cancers, including those of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and breast.

Vitamin C is needed for the growth and repair of tissues of your body, Long-term use of supplemental Vitamin C may protect against cataracts.

It helps make collagen, a connective tissue that knits together wounds and supports blood vessel walls.

Acts as antioxidant, neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. it boosts the immune system

Fruits and fruit juices (especially citrus), potatoes, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, bell peppers, spinach, strawberries, tomatoes, Brussels sprouts, etc. are sources of Vitamin C


It helps to make and release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which helps in many nerve and brain activities.

It’s an essential nutrient for brain development. Plays a role in metabolizing and transporting fats. Choline is used for liver disease, like chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.

Found in many foods especially in milk, eggs, liver, salmon, and peanuts, muscle meats, fish, nuts, beans, peas, spinach, wheat germ, and eggs

Vitamin D (Calciferol)

Vitamin D controls cell growth, neuromuscular, and immune function.
It helps maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, which strengthens bones. 

Repair and maintain bones, teeth, and cartilage. Supplements can reduce the number of non-spinal fractures

Foods provide Vitamin D include fortified milk or margarine, cheese, fortified cereals, fatty fish, beef, liver, Egg yolks, and Mushrooms
Sun is one of the best sources of Vitamin ‘D’, Spend more time in sunlight.

Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol)

Vitamin E acts as an antioxidant, neutralizing volatile molecules that damage cells. Slows the aging process of cells. It protects vitamin A from damage and some lipids. A diet rich in 

Vitamin E can keep you away from Alzheimer's disease.

You can get vitamin E from vegetable oil, lettuce, leafy green vegetables, nuts, etc.

Vitamin K (Phylloquinone, Menadione)   
Activates proteins and calcium, essential to blood clotting, bone metabolism. Regulates blood calcium levels. May help prevent osteoporosis, hip fractures.

Vitamin K found in liver, eggs, milk, spinach, broccoli, sprouts, cabbage, kale, collards, and other green vegetables



Calcium builds and protects bones and teeth. It helps with muscle contractions and relaxation, blood clotting, and nerve impulse transmission. 

Plays a role in hormone secretion and enzyme activation. Helps maintain healthy blood pressure

You can get this mineral from milk, yogurt, cheese, tofu, sardines, salmon, fortified juices, leafy green vegetables such as broccoli and kale (but not spinach or Swiss chard, which have binders that lessen absorption)      

Chloride balances fluids in the body. A component of stomach acid, essential to digestion

We get it from salt (sodium chloride), soy sauce, processed foods.


It plays an important role in iron metabolism and the immune system. 

It helps make red blood cells.

We can get it from the Liver, shellfish, nuts, seeds, whole-grain products, beans, prunes, cocoa, black pepper.


Fluoride encourages strong bone formation. Keeps dental cavities from starting or worsening

We can get it from processed foods made with fluoridated water, toothpaste with fluoride, marine fish, teas       

Iodine is the part of the thyroid hormone, the body needs iodine to make thyroid hormones that help set body temperature and influences nerve and muscle function, reproduction, and growth. 

Prevents goiter and a congenital thyroid disorder         

One can get Iodine from Iodized salt, processed foods, seafood


Iron is an essential element for blood production. It helps hemoglobin in red blood cells and myoglobin in muscle cells.

Transport oxygen throughout the body. It’s needed for chemical reactions in the body and for making amino acids, collagen, neurotransmitters, and hormones     

We can get iron from red meat, poultry, eggs, fruits, green vegetables, fortified bread, and grain products.


Magnesium is essential for many chemical reactions occurring in our body. It works with calcium in muscle contraction, the formation of blood clots, and regulation of blood pressure. 

It helps to build bones and teeth.

We can get it from green vegetables such as spinach and broccoli, legumes, cashews, sunflower seeds and other seeds, halibut, whole-wheat bread, milk


Manganese helps to form bones. It helps metabolize amino acids, cholesterol, and carbohydrates.                       

We can get manganese from fish, nuts, legumes, whole grains, and tea.


Molybdenum is a part of several enzymes, one of which helps ward off a form of severe neurological damage in infants that can lead to an early death.        

We can get it from legumes, nuts, grain products, and milk.


Phosphorus helps to build and protect bones and teeth. Phosphorus is the part of DNA and RNA. It helps to convert food into energy.

It is the part of phospholipids, which carry lipids in blood and help shuttle nutrients into and out of cells.

We can get Phosphorus from a wide variety of foods, including milk and dairy products, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, liver, green peas, broccoli, potatoes, and almonds.

Potassium balances fluids in the body. It helps to maintain a steady heartbeat and send nerve impulses. Needed for muscle contractions. 

A diet rich in potassium seems to lower blood pressure. prevent osteoporosis, preserves bone mineral density,

We can get Potassium from meat, milk, fruits, vegetables, grains, and legumes

Selenium acts as an antioxidant. It neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage our body cells. 

It helps regulate thyroid hormone activity. It may help to prevent cardiovascular disease, and thyroid problems

We can get Selenium from organ meats, seafood, walnuts, and grain products.


Sodium balances fluids and blood volume in the body. However, a person can get a high blood pressure problem by consuming too much sodium and insufficient potassium. 

It helps send nerve impulses, needed for muscle contractions.

We can get Sodium from salt, soy sauce, processed foods, vegetables.

Sulfur helps to form bridges that shape and stabilize some protein structures. 

Needed for healthy hair, skin, and nails.

We can get sulfur from protein-rich foods, such as meats, fish, poultry, nuts, and legumes.


Zinc helps to make many enzymes and proteins and to make new cells. 

Essential for the immune system, taste, odor, and wound healing.

We can get Zinc from red meat, poultry, oyster, seafood, fortified cereals, beans, and nuts.

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All content on this site is taken from the open domain, seek direct advice from your doctor or other qualified physicians any time before making changes to your diet or starting any vitamin supplements.


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